In The Analects (or Lun Yü), one sees Confucius' developing various ideas about the self vs. the other. Here is an example:
The Master said, "If one learns from others but does not think, one will be bewildered. If, on the other hand, one thinks but does not learn from others, one will be in peril."
-The Analects, II.15, trans. by D. C. Lau.